The Soninke later returned to their original land in 300 A.D. and defeated the Sanhaja Berber tribes, at Akwar and exercised rulership in the land. The contemporary date for the Ghana Empire is 7th century AD, but according to Timbuktu book named “Tarikh as- Sudan”,the Empire of Ghana had 22 kings before the muslim common era ,which brings it back to the 3rd A.D., if we symmetrically round of each kings period of power. The king to defeat the Berbers is “DInga Cisse” or “Dyabe Cisse”.To ensure stability it is said that “Dinge Cisse” married the daughters of 3 kings of Berber Tribes. It is also said by many oralist that Dinge Cisse came from far away land.
The Ghana Empire became very prominent and expanded from the 4th century AD onward. It became prominent for a variety of reasons, one of them was that the Wagadu Emperor and his vassal kings ability to properly moderate the ‘’Trans-Sahara trade’’ booming market . The Ghana Empire was primarily located in the Sahel, which was between the Savannah of Sub-Sahara Africa and the Desert of the Sahara. All traders and merchants who sold goods within in the empire were protected, and ensured security if they sold within the borders, this is why the empire had attracted many journeymen and merchants , it was very dangerous to sell goods in the Sahara due to rogue nomadic tribes who salvaged and plundered any caravan traveling the vast desert. Many were traders were ensured security in the territory of the empire, and so they went. But the traders had to pay taxes to the government, they also had to pay tariffs, to the king. Huge quantities of merchandise were sold within the empire like gold, livestock, Morroccan leather, weavers, and elaborate jewelry. They were many markets within the empire examples are Kumbi Saleh, these cities had shops of local potters, craftsmen, weavers, sandal makers. Kumbi Saleh was also had a huge garden in the middle. There were also shops for ironsmiths and coppersmiths who sold jewelry in these cities.
Ghana’s economy was also based on Gold Trade. There were only a few tribes who were assigned to gold mining. One of them was called the “Wangara “were the primary extractors of gold. They kept their mining locations secret for fear of tough tribes and to lessen competition of other tribes extracting it. They of coursed paid large amounts of gold tributes to the Emperor. They were also the tribes of Sosso and Manlinke in who also participated in gold mining.The king only reserved the gold for himself, if the value of gold would’ve decreased throughout his empire if he chose to make it a public possession. Al-Hamdani describes Ghana as having the richest gold mines on Earth.